This entry provides a rank ordering of languages starting with the largest and sometimes includes the percent of total population speaking that language.

Country
Languages(%)
Afghanistan Afghan Persian or Dari (official) 50%, Pashto (official) 35%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism
 
Akrotiri English, Greek
 
Albania Albanian (official - derived from Tosk dialect), Greek, Vlach, Romani, Slavic dialects
 
Algeria Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects
 
American Samoa Samoan 90.6% (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages), English 2.9%, Tongan 2.4%, other Pacific islander 2.1%, other 2%
note: most people are bilingual (2000 census)
 
Andorra Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese
 
Angola Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages
 
Anguilla English (official)
 
Antigua and Barbuda English (official), local dialects
 
Argentina Spanish (official), Italian, English, German, French
 
Armenia Armenian 97.7%, Yezidi 1%, Russian 0.9%, other 0.4% (2001 census)
 
Aruba Papiamento (a Spanish-Portuguese-Dutch-English dialect) 66.3%, Spanish 12.6%, English (widely spoken) 7.7%, Dutch (official) 5.8%, other 2.2%, unspecified or unknown 5.3% (2000 census)
 
Australia English 78.5%, Chinese 2.5%, Italian 1.6%, Greek 1.3%, Arabic 1.2%, Vietnamese 1%, other 8.2%, unspecified 5.7% (2006 Census)
 
Austria German (official nationwide) 88.6%, Turkish 2.3%, Serbian 2.2%, Croatian (official in Burgenland) 1.6%, other (includes Slovene, official in Carinthia, and Hungarian, official in Burgenland) 5.3% (2001 census)
 
Azerbaijan Azerbaijani (Azeri) 90.3%, Lezgi 2.2%, Russian 1.8%, Armenian 1.5%, other 3.3%, unspecified 1% (1999 census)
 
Bahamas, The English (official), Creole (among Haitian immigrants)
 
Bahrain Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu
 
Bangladesh Bangla (official, also known as Bengali), English
 
Barbados English
 
Belarus Belarusian, Russian, other
 
Belgium Dutch (official) 60%, French (official) 40%, German (official) less than 1%, legally bilingual (Dutch and French)
 
Belize Spanish 46%, Creole 32.9%, Mayan dialects 8.9%, English 3.9% (official), Garifuna 3.4% (Carib), German 3.3%, other 1.4%, unknown 0.2% (2000 census)
 
Benin French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars in south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)
 
Bermuda English (official), Portuguese
 
Bhutan Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects, Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects
 
Bolivia Spanish 60.7% (official), Quechua 21.2% (official), Aymara 14.6% (official), foreign languages 2.4%, other 1.2% (2001 census)
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian
 
Botswana Setswana 78.2%, Kalanga 7.9%, Sekgalagadi 2.8%, English 2.1% (official), other 8.6%, unspecified 0.4% (2001 census)
 
Brazil Portuguese (official and most widely spoken language); note - less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages
 
British Virgin Islands English (official)
 
Brunei Malay (official), English, Chinese
 
Bulgaria Bulgarian 84.5%, Turkish 9.6%, Roma 4.1%, other and unspecified 1.8% (2001 census)
 
Burkina Faso French (official), native African languages belonging to Sudanic family spoken by 90% of the population
 
Burma Burmese, minority ethnic groups have their own languages
 
Burundi Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)
 
Cambodia Khmer (official) 95%, French, English
 
Cameroon 24 major African language groups, English (official), French (official)
 
Canada English (official) 59.3%, French (official) 23.2%, other 17.5%
 
Cape Verde Portuguese, Crioulo (a blend of Portuguese and West African words)
 
Cayman Islands English 95%, Spanish 3.2%, other 1.8% (1999 census)
 
Central African Republic French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national language), tribal languages
 
Chad French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects
 
Chile Spanish (official), Mapudungun, German, English
 
China Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)
 
Christmas Island English (official), Chinese, Malay
 
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Malay (Cocos dialect), English
 
Colombia Spanish
 
Comoros Arabic (official), French (official), Shikomoro (a blend of Swahili and Arabic)
 
Congo, Democratic Republic of the French (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade language), Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo, Tshiluba
 
Congo, Republic of the French (official), Lingala and Monokutuba (lingua franca trade languages), many local languages and dialects (of which Kikongo is the most widespread)
 
Cook Islands English (official), Maori
 
Costa Rica Spanish (official), English
 
Cote d'Ivoire French (official), 60 native dialects with Dioula the most widely spoken
 
Croatia Croatian 96.1%, Serbian 1%, other and undesignated 2.9% (including Italian, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and German) (2001 census)
 
Cuba Spanish
 
Cyprus Greek, Turkish, English
 
Czech Republic Czech 94.9%, Slovak 2%, other 2.3%, unidentified 0.8% (2001 census)
 
Denmark Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Inuit dialect), German (small minority)
note: English is the predominant second language
 
Dhekelia English, Greek
 
Djibouti French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar
 
Dominica English (official), French patois
 
Dominican Republic Spanish
 
Ecuador Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially Quechua)
 
Egypt Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
 
El Salvador Spanish, Nahua (among some Amerindians)
 
Equatorial Guinea Spanish 67.6% (official), other 32.4% (includes French (official), Fang, Bubi) (1994 census)
 
Eritrea Afar, Arabic, Tigre and Kunama, Tigrinya, other Cushitic languages
 
Estonia Estonian (official) 67.3%, Russian 29.7%, other 2.3%, unknown 0.7% (2000 census)
 
Ethiopia Amarigna 32.7%, Oromigna 31.6%, Tigrigna 6.1%, Somaligna 6%, Guaragigna 3.5%, Sidamigna 3.5%, Hadiyigna 1.7%, other 14.8%, English (major foreign language taught in schools) (1994 census)
 
European Union Bulgarian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, Gaelic, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish, Swedish
note: only official languages are listed; German, the major language of Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, is the most widely spoken mother tongue - over 19% of the EU population; English is the most widely spoken language - about 49% of the EU population is conversant with it (2007)
 
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) English
 
Faroe Islands Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish
 
Fiji English (official), Fijian (official), Hindustani
 
Finland Finnish 91.2% (official), Swedish 5.5% (official), other 3.3% (small Sami- and Russian-speaking minorities) (2007)
 
France French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish)
overseas departments: French, Creole patois
 
French Polynesia French 61.1% (official), Polynesian 31.4% (official), Asian languages 1.2%, other 0.3%, unspecified 6% (2002 census)
 
Gabon French (official), Fang, Myene, Nzebi, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi
 
Gambia, The English (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous vernaculars
 
Gaza Strip Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by many Palestinians), English (widely understood)
 
Georgia Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, other 7%
note: Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia
 
Germany German
 
Ghana Asante 14.8%, Ewe 12.7%, Fante 9.9%, Boron (Brong) 4.6%, Dagomba 4.3%, Dangme 4.3%, Dagarte (Dagaba) 3.7%, Akyem 3.4%, Ga 3.4%, Akuapem 2.9%, other 36.1% (includes English (official)) (2000 census)
 
Gibraltar English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese
 
Greece Greek 99% (official), other 1% (includes English and French)
 
Greenland Greenlandic (East Inuit), Danish, English
 
Grenada English (official), French patois
 
Guam English 38.3%, Chamorro 22.2%, Philippine languages 22.2%, other Pacific island languages 6.8%, Asian languages 7%, other languages 3.5% (2000 census)
 
Guatemala Spanish 60%, Amerindian languages 40% (23 officially recognized Amerindian languages, including Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi, Mam, Garifuna, and Xinca)
 
Guernsey English, French, Norman-French dialect spoken in country districts
 
Guinea French (official); note - each ethnic group has its own language
 
Guinea-Bissau Portuguese (official), Crioulo, African languages
 
Guyana English, Amerindian dialects, Creole, Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Urdu
 
Haiti French (official), Creole (official)
 
Holy See (Vatican City) Italian, Latin, French, various other languages
 
Honduras Spanish, Amerindian dialects
 
Hong Kong Chinese (Cantonese) 89.2% (official), other Chinese dialects 6.4%, English 3.2% (official), other 1.2% (2001 census)
 
Hungary Hungarian 93.6%, other or unspecified 6.4% (2001 census)
 
Iceland Icelandic, English, Nordic languages, German widely spoken
 
India Hindi 41%, Bengali 8.1%, Telugu 7.2%, Marathi 7%, Tamil 5.9%, Urdu 5%, Gujarati 4.5%, Kannada 3.7%, Malayalam 3.2%, Oriya 3.2%, Punjabi 2.8%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.2%, other 5.9%
note: English enjoys associate status but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the most widely spoken language and primary tongue of 41% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language (2001 census)
 
Indonesia Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (the most widely spoken of which is Javanese)
 
Iran Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic dialects 26%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Balochi 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other 2%
 
Iraq Arabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Turkoman (a Turkish dialect), Assyrian (Neo-Aramaic), Armenian
 
Ireland English (official) is the language generally used, Irish (Gaelic or Gaeilge) (official) spoken mainly in areas along the western coast
 
Isle of Man English, Manx Gaelic
 
Israel Hebrew (official), Arabic used officially for Arab minority, English most commonly used foreign language
 
Italy Italian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)
 
Jamaica English, English patois
 
Japan Japanese
 
Jersey English 94.5% (official), Portuguese 4.6%, other 0.9% (2001 census)
 
Jordan Arabic (official), English widely understood among upper and middle classes
 
Kazakhstan Kazakh (Qazaq, state language) 64.4%, Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the "language of interethnic communication") 95% (2001 est.)
 
Kenya English (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages
 
Kiribati I-Kiribati, English (official)
 
Korea, North Korean
 
Korea, South Korean, English widely taught in junior high and high school
 
Kosovo Albanian (official), Serbian (official), Bosnian, Turkish, Roma
 
Kuwait Arabic (official), English widely spoken
 
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyz 64.7% (official), Uzbek 13.6%, Russian 12.5% (official), Dungun 1%, other 8.2% (1999 census)
 
Laos Lao (official), French, English, and various ethnic languages
 
Latvia Latvian (official) 58.2%, Russian 37.5%, Lithuanian and other 4.3% (2000 census)
 
Lebanon Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian
 
Lesotho Sesotho (southern Sotho), English (official), Zulu, Xhosa
 
Liberia English 20% (official), some 20 ethnic group languages few of which can be written or used in correspondence
 
Libya Arabic, Italian, English, all are widely understood in the major cities
 
Liechtenstein German (official), Alemannic dialect
 
Lithuania Lithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%, other and unspecified 4.4% (2001 census)
 
Luxembourg Luxembourgish (national language), German (administrative language), French (administrative language)
 
Macau Cantonese 85.7%, Hokkien 4%, Mandarin 3.2%, other Chinese dialects 2.7%, English 1.5%, Tagalog 1.3%, other 1.6% (2001 census)
 
Macedonia Macedonian 66.5%, Albanian 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Roma 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other 1.8% (2002 census)
 
Madagascar English (official), French (official), Malagasy (official)
 
Malawi Chichewa 57.2% (official), Chinyanja 12.8%, Chiyao 10.1%, Chitumbuka 9.5%, Chisena 2.7%, Chilomwe 2.4%, Chitonga 1.7%, other 3.6% (1998 census)
 
Malaysia Bahasa Malaysia (official), English, Chinese (Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi, Thai
note: in East Malaysia there are several indigenous languages; most widely spoken are Iban and Kadazan
 
Maldives Maldivian Dhivehi (dialect of Sinhala, script derived from Arabic), English spoken by most government officials
 
Mali French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages
 
Malta Maltese (official) 90.2%, English (official) 6%, multilingual 3%, other 0.8% (2005 census)
 
Marshall Islands Marshallese (official) 98.2%, other languages 1.8% (1999 census)
note: English (official), widely spoken as a second language
 
Mauritania Arabic (official and national), Pulaar, Soninke, Wolof (all national languages), French, Hassaniya
 
Mauritius Creole 80.5%, Bhojpuri 12.1%, French 3.4%, English (official; spoken by less than 1% of the population), other 3.7%, unspecified 0.3% (2000 census)
 
Mayotte Mahorian (a Swahili dialect), French (official language) spoken by 35% of the population
 
Mexico Spanish only 92.7%, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.7%, indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8%; note - indigenous languages include various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional languages (2005)
 
Micronesia, Federated States of English (official and common language), Chuukese, Kosrean, Pohnpeian, Yapese, Ulithian, Woleaian, Nukuoro, Kapingamarangi
 
Moldova Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)
 
Monaco French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque
 
Mongolia Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian (1999)
 
Montenegro Serbian 63.6%, Montenegrin (official) 22%, Bosnian 5.5%, Albanian 5.3%, unspecified 3.7% (2003 census)
 
Montserrat English
 
Morocco Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French often the language of business, government, and diplomacy
 
Mozambique Emakhuwa 26.1%, Xichangana 11.3%, Portuguese 8.8% (official; spoken by 27% of population as a second language), Elomwe 7.6%, Cisena 6.8%, Echuwabo 5.8%, other Mozambican languages 32%, other foreign languages 0.3%, unspecified 1.3% (1997 census)
 
Namibia English 7% (official), Afrikaans common language of most of the population and about 60% of the white population, German 32%, indigenous languages 1% (includes Oshivambo, Herero, Nama)
 
Nauru Nauruan (official; a distinct Pacific Island language), English widely understood, spoken, and used for most government and commercial purposes
 
Nepal Nepali 47.8%, Maithali 12.1%, Bhojpuri 7.4%, Tharu (Dagaura/Rana) 5.8%, Tamang 5.1%, Newar 3.6%, Magar 3.3%, Awadhi 2.4%, other 10%, unspecified 2.5% (2001 census)
note: many in government and business also speak English (2001 est.)
 
Netherlands Dutch (official), Frisian (official)
 
Netherlands Antilles Papiamento 65.4% (a Spanish-Portuguese-Dutch-English dialect), English 15.9% (widely spoken), Dutch 7.3% (official), Spanish 6.1%, Creole 1.6%, other 1.9%, unspecified 1.8% (2001 census)
 
New Caledonia French (official), 33 Melanesian-Polynesian dialects
 
New Zealand English (official), Maori (official), Sign Language (official)
 
Nicaragua Spanish 97.5% (official), Miskito 1.7%, other 0.8% (1995 census)
note: English and indigenous languages on Atlantic coast
 
Niger French (official), Hausa, Djerma
 
Nigeria English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani
 
Niue Niuean, a Polynesian language closely related to Tongan and Samoan; English
 
Norfolk Island English (official), Norfolk - a mixture of 18th century English and ancient Tahitian
 
Northern Mariana Islands Philippine languages 24.4%, Chinese 23.4%, Chamorro 22.4%, English 10.8%, other Pacific island languages 9.5%, other 9.6% (2000 census)
 
Norway Bokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities; note - Sami is official in six municipalities
 
Oman Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects
 
Pakistan Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski and other 8%
 
Palau Palauan 64.7% official in all islands except Sonsoral (Sonsoralese and English are official), Tobi (Tobi and English are official), and Angaur (Angaur, Japanese, and English are official), Filipino 13.5%, English 9.4%, Chinese 5.7%, Carolinian 1.5%, Japanese 1.5%, other Asian 2.3%, other languages 1.5% (2000 census)
 
Panama Spanish (official), English 14%; note - many Panamanians bilingual
 
Papua New Guinea Tok Pisin, English, and Hiri Motu are official languages; some 820 indigenous languages spoken (over one-tenth of the world's total)
note: Tok Pisin, a creole language, is widely used and understod; English is spoken by 1%-2%; Hiri Motu is spoken by less than 2%
 
Paraguay Spanish (official), Guarani (official)
 
Peru Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara, and a large number of minor Amazonian languages
 
Philippines Filipino (official; based on Tagalog) and English (official); eight major dialects - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinan
 
Pitcairn Islands English (official), Pitkern (mixture of an 18th century English dialect and a Tahitian dialect)
 
Poland Polish 97.8%, other and unspecified 2.2% (2002 census)
 
Portugal Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official - but locally used)
 
Puerto Rico Spanish, English
 
Qatar Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second language
 
Romania Romanian 91% (official), Hungarian 6.7%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.1%, other 1.2%
 
Russia Russian, many minority languages
 
Rwanda Kinyarwanda (official) universal Bantu vernacular, French (official), English (official), Kiswahili (Swahili) used in commercial centers
 
Saint Barthelemy French (primary), English
 
Saint Helena English
 
Saint Kitts and Nevis English
 
Saint Lucia English (official), French patois
 
Saint Martin French (official language), English, Dutch, French Patois, Spanish, Papiamento (dialect of Netherlands Antilles)
 
Saint Pierre and Miquelon French (official)
 
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines English, French patois
 
Samoa Samoan (Polynesian), English
 
San Marino Italian
 
Sao Tome and Principe Portuguese (official)
 
Saudi Arabia Arabic
 
Senegal French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Jola, Mandinka
 
Serbia Serbian 88.3% (official), Hungarian 3.8%, Bosniak 1.8%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.1%, other 4.1%, unknown 0.9% (2002 census)
note: Romanian, Hungarian, Slovak, Ukrainian, and Croatian all official in Vojvodina
 
Seychelles Creole 91.8%, English 4.9% (official), other 3.1%, unspecified 0.2% (2002 census)
 
Sierra Leone English (official, regular use limited to literate minority), Mende (principal vernacular in the south), Temne (principal vernacular in the north), Krio (English-based Creole, spoken by the descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who were settled in the Freetown area, a lingua franca and a first language for 10% of the population but understood by 95%)
 
Singapore Mandarin 35%, English 23%, Malay 14.1%, Hokkien 11.4%, Cantonese 5.7%, Teochew 4.9%, Tamil 3.2%, other Chinese dialects 1.8%, other 0.9% (2000 census)
 
Slovakia Slovak (official) 83.9%, Hungarian 10.7%, Roma 1.8%, Ukrainian 1%, other or unspecified 2.6% (2001 census)
 
Slovenia Slovenian 91.1%, Serbo-Croatian 4.5%, other or unspecified 4.4% (2002 census)
 
Solomon Islands Melanesian pidgin in much of the country is lingua franca; English (official but spoken by only 1%-2% of the population); 120 indigenous languages
 
Somalia Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English
 
South Africa IsiZulu 23.8%, IsiXhosa 17.6%, Afrikaans 13.3%, Sepedi 9.4%, English 8.2%, Setswana 8.2%, Sesotho 7.9%, Xitsonga 4.4%, other 7.2% (2001 census)
 
Spain Castilian Spanish (official) 74%, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2%, are official regionally
 
Sri Lanka Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil (national language) 18%, other 8%
note: English is commonly used in government and is spoken competently by about 10% of the population
 
Sudan Arabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages
note: program of "Arabization" in process
 
Suriname Dutch (official), English (widely spoken), Sranang Tongo (Surinamese, sometimes called Taki-Taki, is native language of Creoles and much of the younger population and is lingua franca among others), Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Javanese
 
Svalbard Norwegian, Russian
 
Swaziland English (official, government business conducted in English), siSwati (official)
 
Sweden Swedish, small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
 
Switzerland German (official) 63.7%, French (official) 20.4%, Italian (official) 6.5%, Serbo-Croatian 1.5%, Albanian 1.3%, Portuguese 1.2%, Spanish 1.1%, English 1%, Romansch (official) 0.5%, other 2.8% (2000 census)
note: German, French, Italian, and Romansch are all national and official languages
 
Syria Arabic (official); Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian widely understood; French, English somewhat understood
 
Taiwan Mandarin Chinese (official), Taiwanese (Min), Hakka dialects
 
Tajikistan Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
 
Tanzania Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages
note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources including Arabic and English; it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages
 
Thailand Thai, English (secondary language of the elite), ethnic and regional dialects
 
Timor-Leste Tetum (official), Portuguese (official), Indonesian, English
note: there are about 16 indigenous languages; Tetum, Galole, Mambae, and Kemak are spoken by significant numbers of people
 
Togo French (official and the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
 
Tokelau Tokelauan (a Polynesian language), English
 
Tonga Tongan, English
 
Trinidad and Tobago English (official), Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), French, Spanish, Chinese
 
Tunisia Arabic (official and one of the languages of commerce), French (commerce)
 
Turkey Turkish (official), Kurdish, other minority languages
 
Turkmenistan Turkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%
 
Turks and Caicos Islands English (official)
 
Tuvalu Tuvaluan, English, Samoan, Kiribati (on the island of Nui)
 
Uganda English (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
 
Ukraine Ukrainian (official) 67%, Russian 24%, other 9% (includes small Romanian-, Polish-, and Hungarian-speaking minorities)
 
United Arab Emirates Arabic (official), Persian, English, Hindi, Urdu
 
United Kingdom English, Welsh (about 26% of the population of Wales), Scottish form of Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland)
 
United States English 82.1%, Spanish 10.7%, other Indo-European 3.8%, Asian and Pacific island 2.7%, other 0.7% (2000 census)
note: Hawaiian is an official language in the state of Hawaii
 
Uruguay Spanish, Portunol, or Brazilero (Portuguese-Spanish mix on the Brazilian frontier)
 
Uzbekistan Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
 
Vanuatu local languages (more than 100) 72.6%, pidgin (known as Bislama or Bichelama) 23.1%, English 1.9%, French 1.4%, other 0.3%, unspecified 0.7% (1999 Census)
 
Venezuela Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects
 
Vietnam Vietnamese (official), English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, and Khmer; mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
 
Virgin Islands English 74.7%, Spanish or Spanish Creole 16.8%, French or French Creole 6.6%, other 1.9% (2000 census)
 
Wallis and Futuna Wallisian 58.9% (indigenous Polynesian language), Futunian 30.1%, French 10.8%, other 0.2% (2003 census)
 
West Bank Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by Israeli settlers and many Palestinians), English (widely understood)
 
Western Sahara Hassaniya Arabic, Moroccan Arabic
 
World Mandarin Chinese 13.22%, Spanish 4.88%, English 4.68%, Arabic 3.12%, Hindi 2.74%, Portuguese 2.69%, Bengali 2.59%, Russian 2.2%, Japanese 1.85%, Standard German 1.44%, French 1.2% (2005 est.)
note: percents are for "first language" speakers only
 
Yemen Arabic
 
Zambia English (official), major vernaculars - Bemba, Kaonda, Lozi, Lunda, Luvale, Nyanja, Tonga, and about 70 other indigenous languages
 
Zimbabwe English (official), Shona, Sindebele (the language of the Ndebele, sometimes called Ndebele), numerous but minor tribal dialects

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Source:
 
• Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was complied from material in the public domain and does not represent Solidary Foundation estimates.

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